The Role of CLE Peptides in the Suppression of Mycorrhizal Colonization of Tomato

Wulf KE, Sun J, Wang C, Ho‐Plágaro T, Kwon C-T, Velandia K, Correa-Lozano A, Tamayo‐Navarrete MI, Reid JB, Garcia Garrido JM and Foo E

Plant and Cell Physiology


Symbioses with beneficial microbes are widespread in plants, but these relationships must balance the energy invested by the plants with the nutrients acquired. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi occurs throughout land plants, but our understanding of the genes and signals that regulate colonization levels is limited, especially in non-legumes. Here, we demonstrate that in tomato, two CLV3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptides, SlCLE10 and SlCLE11, act to suppress AM colonization of roots. Mutant studies and overexpression via hairy transformation indicate that SlCLE11 acts locally in the root to limit AM colonization. Indeed, SlCLE11 expression is strongly induced in AM-colonized roots, but SlCLE11 is not required for phosphate suppression of AM colonization. SlCLE11 requires the FIN gene that encodes an enzyme required for CLE peptide arabinosylation to suppress mycorrhizal colonization. However, SlCLE11 suppression of AM does not require two CLE receptors with roles in regulating AM colonization, SlFAB (CLAVATA1 ortholog) or SlCLV2. Indeed, multiple parallel pathways appear to suppress mycorrhizal colonization in tomato, as double mutant studies indicate that SlCLV2 and FIN have an additive influence on mycorrhizal colonization. SlCLE10 appears to play a more minor or redundant role, as cle10 mutants did not influence intraradical AM colonization. However, the fact that cle10 mutants had an elevated number of hyphopodia and that ectopic overexpression of SlCLE10 did suppress mycorrhizal colonization suggests that SlCLE10 may also play a role in suppressing AM colonization. Our findings show that CLE peptides regulate AM colonization in tomato and at least SlCLE11 likely requires arabinosylation for activity.